The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 kg to 109.6 kg (Table 1). This species is commonly known as the loop-root mangrove, red mangrove, and Asiatic mangrove [4, 5]. Tree allometry is an important tool for estimating tree weight from independent variables such as trunk diameter, tree height, crown height, total height that are easily measurable in the field. For the best fit model, the explanatory variable DBH was statistically significant and the high R2 value of the best fit model indicated that the dependent variable which is the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. phoraceae), Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and Sonneratia alba. Rhizophora mucronata, a dominant species in the Kenyan mangroves (UNEP, 2001), has been reported on several occasions to form wood which completely lacks growth ... of the tree, but at 130 cm height above ground level. The tree often branches from low down, and can have more than one bole, which can be 25 - 60cm in diameter [. Furthermore, Rhizophora mucronata is recognized as a species with a considerable economic importance as it provides natural products such as charcoal, wild honey, and timber, food, and medicinal element to the mangrove forest associated residents to improve the quality of their livelihoods [9, 10]. This study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation forest, The Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka. 9 cm. Stem up to 400 mm in diameter, straight, with distinctive aerial roots or what is also referred to as knee-roots (breathing roots), with rough reddish, brown to almost … raised by the authors for three years along the Vellar estuary (Lat. There was no significant difference of the mean measured stem carbon content and the mean predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equations developed for Rhizophora mucronata (Table 5, Student’s t test, ). Generally, mature trees are expected to have long carbon residence time. The mean DBH, stem height, merchantable stem height, crown height leaf area and the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 1. The residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 1. Rhizophora mucronata is a slow-growing, much-branched, evergreen tree growing up to 27 metres tall, with a bole 50 - 70 cm in diameter Previous studies conducted in this part of the country to assess the mangrove carbon sequestration capacity have used destructive methods [31, 32]. The black mangrove, usually of moderate height, sometimes grows 18 to 21 metres (59 to 69 feet) tall. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more typical height. Copyright © 2020 W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne and Pawani Madhushani Liyanage. The best fitted model was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods as described by Subasinghe and Haripriya [15]. Rhizophora mucronata belongs to family Rhizophoraceae. Mangroves play an important role in carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, and they have a considerable contribution of carbon dioxide mitigation. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree. However, use of destructive methods for this purpose is not advisable as they can disrupt the balance of the carbon removal process. Classification. To construct the model, 75% of data were used. Measured and predicted stem carbon content of, Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of, Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, International Journal of Forestry Research, Percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class (%), C. Giri, E. Ochieng, L. L. Tieszen et al., “Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data,”, W. Giesen, S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren, and L. Scholten, “Mangrove guidebook for southeast Asia,”, A. E. Schwarzbach and R. E. Ricklefs, “Systematic affinities of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae, and intergeneric relationships within Rhizophoraceae, based on chloroplast DNA, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and morphology,”, J. Kumar, M. E. Vijey Kumar, K. B. Ranjanna et al., “Ecological benefits of mangrove,”, N. H. Tri, W. N. Adger, and P. M. Kelly, “Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: the example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove-microbe-soil relations,” in, D. M. Alongi and P. Dixon, “Mangrove primary production and above-and below-ground biomass in Sawi Bay, southern Thailand,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change,”, K. Dhanwantri, P. Sharma, S. Mehta, and P. Prakash, “Carbon sequestration, its methods and significance,”, D. Murdiyarso, J. Purbopuspito, J. The present study was conducted to develop an allometric model to determine the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a conserved tropical mangrove ecosystem. A diameter tape was used to measure the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, and the clinometer method was used to measure the total tree height, tree crown height, and merchantable stem height. The VIF values were used to measure the effect of multicollinearity among the explanatory variables. Propagules, those about to detach from trees were collected in August, 2013 in Pambala lagoon, Sri Lanka (7°34’N, 79°48’E) to use in the experiment. var. This is a very common species in the mangrove forests in the Asian region and found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam [5, 6]. The present study can be considered as the initial attempt to use a non-destructive method to construct an allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a tropical conserved mangrove forest. Therefore, it is very important to measure the carbon content of the tree stems, in order to estimate the role of a particular tree species in removal of excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The method described by Sabin was used to measure the stem volume of each plant [13]. Sembilan was carried on 21 August 2014 using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata seedlings. 2.2. The most common tropical mangrove genera include Avicennia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Sonneratia. Asiatic Mangrove ( Rhizophora mucronata ) Height: up to 30 m Origin: Southeast Asia Environment: tidal creeks and coastal areas Climate: wet, tropical Notes: The Asiatic Mangrove grows on the banks of tidal creeks, around estuaries and in areas flooded by daily high tides. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. As trees mature, they sequester less carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon in their stems [28–30]. �`"��@$�B��i ������٢ �9L��u��e!j��Hc[�Dz��H.���SA$/�d����b+փ�� Their average diameter is 14 cm (with a minimum of 6.37 cm and a maximum of 23.57 cm) for the first and 15 cm (with The stem carbon content can be easily estimated from this model by using an easily measurable tree parameter. ImageJ software was used to measure the leaf area of each tree (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). Declining tree growth over time is caused due to changes in the supply rate of required resources (light, nutrients, and water), change in balance between photosynthesis and respiration, increased hydraulic resistance, decreased nutrient supply, or genetic changes with meristem age which can result in increased carbon storage capacity of the mature trees compared to the new trees [17–21]. Price, J. S. Weitz, V. M. Savage et al., “Testing the metabolic theory of ecology,”, M. D. Amarasinghe and S. Balasubramaniam, “Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka,” in, M. A. D. Umayangani and K. A. R. S. Perera, “Contribution of vegetation structure on carbon assimilation capacity of mangrove ecosystem: a case study from negombo estuary, Sri Lanka,”. The diameter at breast height of the sampled trees ranged from 4.7 cm to 15. The variations of stem carbon content at different DBH classes are given in Table 2. The studies that have been conducted so far have followed a destructive method of sampling, which involves the removal of sampled trees from the ecosystem and measuring the carbon content stored in the plant parts. 2020, Article ID 8849413, 6 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8849413, 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the major predictors of stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. %PDF-1.6 %���� Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to construct an allometric equation for the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective of using a nondestructive method to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in conserved tropical mangrove ecosystems. In Rhizophora mucronata, the bacterial treatment increased the shoot height growth at different levels of salinity. The mean values of the measured stem carbon content and the predicted stem carbon content using the prediction model for Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 5. However, the removal of plants from their natural ecosystem can have detrimental effects to the global climate and therefore currently it is not encouraged to remove plants even for the research purposes. The reliability of the model was 76.7%, and the model was significant at 95% level of significance. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 m2. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. The results of the correlation analysis are given in Table 3. The value of the best fit model for Rhizophora mucronata was statistically significant as it was lower than the alpha level of 0.01 (Table 4, stepwise regression analysis with backward elimination method). Only 75% of data were used in construction of the model while other 25% of data were used in model validation. The constructed models, their regression coefficients, and VIFs (variance inflation factors) are given in Table 4. The model bias value was very close to 0, and the modelling efficiency value was close to one indicating that the selected model is well suited to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. This effect was higher by 44.2% in the bacillus-treated seedlings grown under 35 g l-1 salinity (Figure 1), by 39.6% in the mixture treated seedlings raised under 17.5 g l-1, and by 28.1% in the azotobacter-treated In model B, DBH (VIF = 1) showed a good fit for the model (R2 = 76.7%) (Table 4). Therefore, a discrepancy between the actual age of the tree However, there was no significant difference in the mean stem carbon content of the trees at the DBH classes 4 and 6. When selecting mangrove species for replantation, the factors such as their adaptability, growth rate, and the extent of the root system are considered as high-priority characteristics. Plant height varied significantly between species or age of plantation (p<0.01 ), but not between season of analysis. The mangrove species (Rhizophora mucronata Poir.) The residual diagram showed a random pattern indicating that the model can be proved to use in the real world (Figure 2). Show All Show Tabs Asiatic mangrove General Information; Symbol: RHMU Group: Dicot Family: Rhizophoraceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Tree: Native Status: PB N: Other Common Names: mangrove Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. Accordingly, the two Rhizophora species, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata, were selected for the study. Coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests are identified as blue carbon ecosystems and they store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests and therefore are recognized as highly important ecosystems to mitigate climate change [12].

rhizophora mucronata height

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