Her book, All Horse Systems Go, is a comprehensive veterinary care and conditioning resource in full color that covers all facets of horse care. TETANUS Horses spend a lot of time around dirt/manure, so they are at particular risk for contamination of even the smallest wound with Clostridium tetani spores. Sellon weighs in: “Strangles IN vaccine is used in horses at risk of exposure to strangles. ACVIM, a professor of equine medicine at Washington State University, suggests, “The tetanus toxoid is inexpensive and safe, and the disease is highly fatal. Annual boosters are required thereafter (must be given within 365 days of previous injection). Stay up-to-date on the latest news about your horse's health with FREE newsletters from TheHorse.com. Foals should also receive this vaccine series in high-risk areas. Scollay says if your veterinarian recommends vaccinating twice yearly, “it might be prudent to consider vaccinating say, April 1 and Aug. 1, to enhance immunity during the period of high risk for exposure, instead of at a rigid six-month interval.”. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. A vaccine is available for C. botulinum type B, which is particularly useful to protect foals against shaker foal syndrome that have acquired botulism through ingestion of the spores. Some vaccinations are started at four months old and need to be boostered three to four weeks later. Natural Disaster: Are You and Your Horse Ready for Emergency Evacuation? This is the time of year your horse should be well-protected against respiratory viruses, specifically influenza and the respiratory form of herpesvirus (rhinopneumonitis). MAR/APR/MAY: Administer spring immunizations during these months in order to have vaccines on board in advance of warming weather and an active mosquito season. We highly recommend Equimax (for tapeworms) at least once yearly. Current vaccines do not have challenge information based on this natural route of infection, but, instead, are based on a transmission method that was suspected and now has been disproven (ticks, so tests to determine vaccine efficacy were done with blood challenge). Apr 9, 2018 - Explore Stefanie's board "Horse Worming Schedule" on Pinterest. and has a special interest in managing the care of sport horses. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Your horse may need additional vaccines if they show or travel, or are at risk for less common diseases. Vaccines are only one aspect of preventing disease; it is just as important to implement good horsekeeping and biosecurity strategies (see page 31 for more information) to minimize disease risk. The exception to this is horses with very high previous, especially if recent, exposure to strangles. may warrant beginning vaccination at an earlier age than a foal born prior to the vector season. STRANGLES Available vaccines do not protect entirely against Streptococcus equi-caused disease, and there are controversies surrounding its use in some animals. The vaccination strategy for EEE and WEE is comparable to WNV–once or twice annual boosters, depending on length of mosquito season, following an initial priming series. ROTAVIRUS In the case of the diarrheal disease rotavirus, vaccinate the mare to protect the foal, especially if there have been previous problems with this disease on the farm or in the area. RABIES Scollay says, “Rabies is a fatal neurologic disease of warm-blooded animals; that means horses and humans.” Wild animals such as bats, skunks, foxes, or raccoons can bite a horse and pass this virus without anyone being aware. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress. Foal Vaccination Chart; Adult Horse Vaccination Chart; Bibliography . Spring-born calves, however, will generally have cost-effective gains from mid-summer deworming. Whether you have one horse or several, you’ll never miss a worming again with this handy horse worming chart. The AAEP developed a useful vaccination protocol that can be accessed at www.aaep.org/vaccination_guidelines.htm. Ideally, all horses in a group should receive vaccinations and be on the same schedule when possible. 2 0 obj WEST NILE VIRUS This disease, which causes potentially fatal neurologic illness and is endemic in the lower 48 states, is carried by birds and transmitted by mosquitoes to horses. Keep in mind the timing of your annual boosters, making sure the horse is protected during mosquito season. A third injection given between 150 and 215 days (5 and 7 months) after the second injection. AAEP guidelines are created simply to serve as guidelines for the practitioner and the equine industry. Discuss your individual needs with your veterinarian. It is not a passive process. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The AAEP vaccination guidelines recommend at-risk horses be vaccinated for equine influenza and herpesvirus every six months, Stay on top of the most recent Horse Health news with, Located in Aiken SC. A foal’s first-year immunizations begin as a series of two to three injections (depending on the product), followed by boosters once or twice a year. A primary series is followed by an annual booster. Recommended vaccines/health management. (For more information see article #11398 at TheHorse.com.) Influenza One of the most common respiratory diseases in horses, influenza is highly contagious. Rabies: 2-dose series: 1st dose at 6 months of age. Consult your veterinarian for the most effective deworming schedule for your horses and region. INFLUENZA VIRUS Horses that travel or encounter horses that have been traveling are at an increased risk of exposure to equine influenza virus. The IM vaccine often causes soreness, swelling, or potential abscesses at the vaccination site. Consider diagnostic testing to determine if the horse is harboring S. equi before vaccinating. Traditional de-worming strategies in horses, consisting of rotating the different dewormers at regular intervals, were developed more than 40 years ago and were very effective against Strongylus vulgaris (large strongyle), the most important parasite in horses at the time. See more ideas about Horse worming schedule, Horse health, Horse care. Vaccines are an important part of your horse's preventative health program. Horses are infected by ingesting infected insects derived from aquatic environments. Horse Care How to care for the basic health needs of horses Lameness Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of leg lameness Nutrition Proper … Fecal egg counts can help monitor your horse and decide if your horse needs deworming. 2nd dose 4 - 6 weeks after 1st dose. The virus may not present any symptoms in carrier animals. This generally means Kentucky and the mid- Atlantic region of the eastern United States.”. 3. HERPESVIRUS OR RHINOPNEUMONITIS Equine herpesvirus (EHV-1 and EHV-4) can cause respiratory problems (this disease expression is known as rhinopneumonitis). Debra Sellon, DVM, PhD, Dipl. EASTERN AND WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS Encephalomyelitis (or encephalitis) virus, which causes neurologic disease, also is carried by birds and transmitted by mosquitoes. Vaccination can prevent the return of disease, suppress virus so it remains latent, and stop shedding in nasal secretions, limiting transmission to naïve horses. Rotational Worming Kits Wound & Hoof Care First Aid Kits & Medical Tools Bandaging & Wraps Liniments & Poultices ... A foal born during the vector season may warrant beginning vaccination at an earlier age than a foal born prior to the vector season. Scollay says research has shown EHV vaccination programs help reduce clinical disease and the period of viral shedding in adult horses. BOTULISM This fatal neurotoxic disease disease is caused by Clostridium botulinum. Immunizations are the cornerstone of disease prevention if given appropriately and in a timely manner. Equine Physical Therapy: What Are Your Options? Attachment 1: Deworming and Vaccination Schedule Table 1: Deworming Schedule for Wild Horses and Burros at Short-Term Holding Facilities Treatment Adult Older Than 1 Year Foals (Born in the Current Foaling Year) DeWorming Primary Dose Every 180 days Primary Dose Every 180 days or more frequent as facility conditions dictate. This tool will give you a customized immunization schedule for your horse and other critical vaccination guidelines. These cookies do not store any personal information. Scollay gives the vaccinations in two sets, 10 to 14 days apart. EHV-4 causes mostly respiratory disease, whereas EHV-1 can cause respiratory disease, abortion, or neurologic disease. Vaccination is not a substitute for other good management practices, and should be used in conjunction with proper nutrition, deworming, pasture management and minimizing stress and overcrowding for optimal results in each horse and herd. 2–4 weeks prior to lambing or kidding. These are suggested guidelines to induce immunity in calves. <> Vaccination is recommended for all horses and ponies on an annual basis. Base your decision to vaccinate for strangles on assessment of the potential risks (farm history, lots of horse traffic on and off farm) and benefits. Timing. The Vaccination Equi-Planner is an educational resource of Equine Guelph and the University of Guelph. “While the antibodies in the mare’s colostrum provide a foal with early protection against infectious diseases,” she says, “those same antibodies can also inhibit the foal’s own immune system from ‘learning’ from a vaccine and developing its own immunity to disease. Administer a three-vaccine series to a pregnant mare by the last month prior to foaling. As such, they do not have the force of law. Vaccinate adult horses in these areas based on a veterinarian’s recommendation. Healthy horses should be wormed every 6-8 weeks (minimum of six times a year) Horse breeding from planning through foal care, Horse-health-problem risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, Design and maintain a healthy horse operation, Prevention and treatment for problems of the equine foot, How to care for the basic health needs of horses, Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of leg lameness, Proper feeding practices for foals, adult horses, and older horses, All aspects of caring for performance horses, News and issues for equine health professionals, Discussions about the welfare of our equine friends, Equine Ambulance Coming to Midwest Horse Fair. Genesee Valley Equine Clinic has provided ambulatory veterinary care to the horses of the Genesee Valley region for almost 60 years. %PDF-1.5 Spring heralds more riding and transport, so schedule your horse’s annual spring veterinary checkup. While references to deworming are made in this publication, a comprehensive discussion is not included. Vaccinations for Adult Horses Core Vaccinations. The Horse’s experts answer your questions during a monthly live audio event. Walk, trot, canter and learning to jump small…. Collaborate with your veterinarian to tailor the best strategy for your horse, based on exposure and risk. ANTHRAX This is a fatal disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, occurring in specific geographical locations where the spores remain in the soil for decades. Immune protection for pregnant mares requires vaccination with EHV-1 vaccine specifically labeled for abortion protection. In warmer climes where mosquitoes abound year-round, it might be necessary to administer boosters twice a year, depending on the vaccine product. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> <> Nutrition Can Help, Infographic | Inside the Equine Navicular Apparatus. Sometimes it is confusing as to which ones your horse might need. She says, “I don’t know if this benefits in terms of developing better immunity, but I do think the horses are more comfortable with less localized muscle soreness and general ‘punkishness.’ ”. Since understanding your pet’s vaccination needs is important to providing them with the best care, why not take minute to learn the basics of dog vaccinations and their schedules. Your veterinarian will administer “core vaccines,” which are those considered important for every horse to have annually, regardless of geographical location or athletic use. Core Vaccinations protect against diseases that are endemic to a region, are virulent/highly contagious, pose a risk of severe disease, those having potential public health significance, and/or are required by law. x��]m��6��n��A��{Y$���I|��Kvoc$88��=��i�L����\��_���(����� �xT�S,�U�()y��䫯^}��_�I�ׯ���|�����7Yr��Y�4U��B�"���}���O/_$�~�u�����ܞ��7����a{�|x��p>�����o��W�|��7��a�޾���;�����B$�'��,��B�U�'�^��P�,���/>���u�zx��ωX�3y��/_|=ao��B�β�LJՍWV�Mm�z��3[���#ZI� OT�6��d��gvaYE&"O�a�0"/R�C�uZ�.߬��d}��n��B��.N|zI�HU�Nh���I��~X}���+��e�����Z��#�����'�3Y��пZ���?oo׵\7�+Î��W��E����>��L��6H��rhc1�q��|UY�6�������-����>��NWԪj��ᤌ� �H��. vaccinations and be on the same schedule when possible. Other immunizations commonly given this time of year are influenza and herpesvirus vaccines. Nancy S. Loving, DVM, owns Loving Equine Clinic in Boulder, Colorado, Your horse should receive, at the very least, Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis (EEE and WEE), West Nile virus (WNV), tetanus, and rabies vaccines (first three are spread via mosquitoes). A regular rotational worming schedule has proven to be the best defense against internal parasites in horses. I recommend IM strangles vaccine for broodmares in the last 30 to 60 days of gestation if they or their foals are at risk of exposure. Vaccination for rotavirus should never be considered as a replacement for this type of husbandry.”. Booster at time of injury or surgery if greater than six months since last vaccination. All strangles vaccines have been associated with immune-mediated reactions, such as vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) and myositis (inflammation of muscles). Luckily, there are three vaccines against WNV–all are safe and have demonstrated good efficacy. These are usually incorporated into the vaccine program at the time of the fall veterinary visit. Cough, runny nose, or fever can be readily apparent, but EHV can be latent (hidden) in the horse, meaning it sits in the lymphatic tissue without producing any proteins and, therefore, the horse does not “respond” to it. The AAEP and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) describe core vaccines as those “that protect from diseases that are endemic (prevalent with a high rate of occurrence) to a region, those with potential public health significance, required by law, virulent or highly infectious, and/or those posing a risk of severe disease.” These include: tetanus, West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis (EEE and WEE), and rabies. Some vaccinations are given as a combination, such as the DHLPPC, which helps protect against distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, parvo and corona. DEC/JAN/FEB: During the winter months, not much needs to be considered in the way of vaccinations unless a horse will be traveling to an area with diseases for which he would be at high risk and has not yet been immunized. Boosters can be given at this time for WNV, EEE, and WEE in areas with mosquito seasons that extend into winter months. As a consequence, it is strongly recommended that all foals be dewormed initially at 1 to 2 months of age. Pinworm eggs are picked up by horses from contaminated feed, water, bedding, and may also be present on tail wraps, grooming materials, and even fence posts and stalls. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. With dedication to educating owners and a focus on providing the best possible medical care in the area, our team provides full field service for your horses 24/7. ID RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES CHART - Depending on your horse's unique risk profile, and the recommendation of your veterinarian, your individualized deworming plan should fall into one of the four levels profiled in the chart This vaccine is usually only administered to pastured horses in high-risk areas. If the mare was vaccinated late in pregnancy, the foal’s vaccinations should begin later than if the mare was not vaccinated late in pregnancy. This may lead to tail rubbing and even injury to the tail and rump. A horse owner has an obligation to provide input when a vaccination program is being developed. There are many effective equine flu vaccines, and a horse should receive two or more boosters a year (depending on which product is used), usually in the spring and fall, following the initial series of three injections and/or intranasal (IN) administration of certain products. The best way to determine the deworming schedule for your horse is to involve your veterinarian and to perform fecal egg counts (FEC) to determine: 1) Dewormer efficacy in your equine operation, 2) monitor for presence of ascarids in young horses, and 3) identify low, medium or high strongyle egg shedders among adult horses. %���� The IN vaccine, which is (made with) modified-live bacteria, may cause abscesses, rarely. Foals from vaccinated mares should be given a three-dose series at 6, 7, and 9 mo of age. Stressors such as transport, weaning, castration, mixing of horses, or foaling can reactivate the virus, which the asymptomatic horse sheds in respiratory secretions. (For more information see article #10688 at TheHorse.com.) The 2007 Australian epidemic, in which thousands of unvaccinated horses were exposed to flu, displayed how readily the disease could spread. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Most experts agree that vaccination of horses with either IM (intramuscular) or IN vaccines, if they have a pre-existing high titer to the bacterial organism, is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects. Pregnant mares in high-risk areas should be receive a primary series at least four to six weeks prior to foaling to ensure transfer in colostral antibodies for the foal. Beautiful and kind mare. A second dose of toxoid should be given 4 wk later. Horses typically don’t get vaccinations until they are several months old, depending on their needs. Its effect on horses follows a seasonal pattern, usually between late spring and the fall during hot weather (vaccinate prior to insect hatching and warm weather). You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. An annual booster of tetanus toxoid in the spring is recommended. Washing the perianal region may help relieve the itching, but all materials used should be discard… AAEP VACCINATION FOR FOALS Talk to your veterinarian about which risk-based vaccines are needed for your farm and geography. Horses living in states directly bordering Mexico might also receive an annual booster for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE). 4 0 obj Deworming calves at weaning is beneficial and should be included in a weaning program. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Before vaccinating, you can screen a horse for previous exposure to EVA with a blood test. Are Your Horses Ready for You to be Quarantined? Vaccinating a horse. Therefore, I always recommend a booster tetanus toxoid injection in horses with wounds or with plans to undergo surgery if it has been more than six months since that horse received its last booster injection.”. To help you decipher them and understand how often your pet needs which shots, here is a basic dog vaccination schedule chart to follow. Clostridium perfringens types C and D and tetanus. This vaccine is not necessary for other adult horses. Let’s look at the vaccine options, the necessity of each, and how to plan for boosters throughout the year. Vaccinating for EVA might also preclude a horse’s entry into some countries, as it is difficult to determine natural versus vaccine titers. Examples of information that should be shared include how the horse is used, whether it travels, and what other animals is it likely to come in contact with.”. Many horses can receive multiple vaccines at one time and have no adverse reactions, particularly if using separate injections rather than multivalent products, but not all horses fare well in this scenario. Every foal beginning at four weeks of age needs to be dewormed on a regular basis. Infectious canine hepatitis is a highly contagious viral infection that affects the … The following vaccination schedule is adapted from AAEP core and risk-based vaccination guidelines for foals. Fall-born calves should be included in a spring deworming program (sometimes 2 dewormings) based on the expected time of weaning and post-weaning management. One of the brightest spots of equine medical care for horses is the availability of many safe and effective vaccines to protect horses from infectious and noninfectious diseases. endobj Deworming schedules (in general): lDeworm foals every two months, starting at 2 months of age, for the first year of their life or use protocol for daily deworming described above. Once the foal is one year of age the program should be changed to an adult deworming schedule. SEPT/OCT/NOV: In the autumn months preparations are under way for winter. Stage of production. endobj If you don’t know the mare’s vaccination status, you must assume she was both vaccinated and unvaccinated.”. If you continue to use the site, we'll assume you're okay with this. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Pregnant mares should not receive the EVA vaccine. stream Horses should receive an annual booster following the initial vaccine series. Deworming should be performed on every horse 2–6 times yearly depending upon your operation’s level of confinement. Horses, especially those over three years old, should be treated as individuals and not according to … Following a primary series, veterinarians administer strangles vaccines once or twice annually in high-risk areas. Recommended Vaccine and Health Management Schedule for Sheep and Goats. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Sellon comments, “Botulism should be included in broodmare vaccinations if the horses reside or will travel to areas where type B botulism is known to occur. <>>> Get your free printable Worming Schedule here. Rabies vaccine is labeled to be given once a year, but Scollay says if you have concerns about a specific horse’s immunity, it would be appropriate to consider a series of two vaccinations. At a Glance: MRI to Diagnose Equine Lameness. Scollay explains that foal vaccination timing is based on maternal antibody interference. In high-risk areas or situations, your horse might also be immunized against strangles, Potomac horse fever (PHF), or botulism. (For more information see article #10215 at TheHorse.com.). Additional Vaccine & Worming recommendations: Strangles Vaccine (aka distemper) – discuss this vaccine with your veterinarian to determine your horse’s risk. Optional vaccines* Pregnant sheep and goats . Tetanus Toxoid Annual (Spring) 4-6 weeks prior to foaling. 1 0 obj Webcast | Horse Under Stress? At a Glance | The Good Drink: Keeping Horses Hydrated, Dynamic Endoscopy to Assess Airway Function. Disclaimer . Most times this vaccine is used to protect breeding stallions, mares with planned breeding to a known infected stallion, and nonbreeding horses in the event of an outbreak. Consult your veterinarian to establish an effective and safe deworming schedule for your mare. Given that humans are constantly inserting their hands into horses’ mouths when placing a bit, checking age, floating teeth, or administering dewormers and paste medications, Scollay asks, “Why would you risk contracting a fatal disease from routine contact with a horse, especially when the disease can be effectively prevented?”. EQUINE VIRAL ARTERITIS This disease is encountered most commonly in the semen of an infected carrier stallion, yet it can be passed from horse to horse in respiratory secretions. Canine Hepatitis. Most deworming agents available today are relatively safe for pregnant mares. 3 0 obj Vaccination schedule Puppies receive most of their vaccinations every two to four weeks until they are at least 14 weeks old. Sellon counsels, “All breeding operations, large and small, should have in place reasonable biosecurity plans to decrease the chance of accidental introduction of the disease on the premises. Don’t start flu and rhino until 6 to 9 months of age, depending on the mare’s vaccination history. Most foals are born in the spring and will not receive EEE, WEE, WNV, and tetanus immunizations until 4 or 5 months of age or later. 2nd dose 4 - 6 weeks after 1st dose. Vaccines against certain diseases are given based on anticipated degree of risk. By the last month of gestation, the pregnant broodmare should be toward the end of her series of primary immunizations or boosters against all “core” diseases and those specific to your general area for which she’s at high risk. Will need to use cattle vaccines labeled safe for sheep and goats. This way a foal receives colostral antibodies that provide resistance to rotavirus for the first 30 to 60 days. We recommend that during the first twelve months of life the foal be dewormed every 30 days. Around four to six months of age, your foal is ready for its first vaccinations (if its dam had been vaccinated). Serum Profile Matters in Blood-Based Equine Joint Treatments, Accurate, Stall-Side Equine Progesterone and IgG Tests Now Available from TargetVet, Study: Straw-Hay Mix Helps Ponies Lose Weight Safely, Northeast Association of Equine Practitioners Symposium 2019, International Society for Equitation Science 2019, Podotrochlosis: ‘Navicular’ is No Longer the End of the Road for Horses, Core Vaccination: Protecting Horses From 5 Deadly Diseases. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Diseases covered. Equine influenza vaccine schedule: A primary course of two injections given between 21 and 92 days apart. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. No issues or vices. A horse with an unknown vaccination status that sustains an injury should receive a dose of tetanus antitoxin along with a dose of tetanus toxoid. Treatment should be repeated every 30 to 60 days until one year of age, at which time the now-yearling can be placed on the same deworming schedule as other horses on the farm. Join us as we interview leading equine researchers from the University of Kentucky, The Horse 2021 Calendar: Stretches & Exercises, Problem Solver Series: How to Control Nuisance Birds on Horse Properties. Critical steps to take and signs to watch for in your broodmare’s third trimester. It is also time to give the puppy the first dewormer to eliminate intestinal parasites such as roundworm or hookworm. In breeding situations where a horse is likely to be exposed to equine viral arteritis (EVA), this vaccine would also be included. POTOMAC HORSE FEVER (PHF) This is a diarrheal disease (and occasional cause of abortion) caused by the organism Neorickettsia risticii. While any worm can affect your foal, the most significant parasites are ascarids, also known as roundworms. Posted by Nancy S. Loving, DVM | Jan 1, 2009 | Anthrax, Article, Botulism & Shaker Foal, Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), Equine Herpesvirus (EHV), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA), Foal Care, Influenza, Potomac Horse Fever, Rabies, Rotavirus, Strangles, Tetanus, Vaccinations, West Nile Virus (WNV), Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE). lIndividual horses will often require different deworming programs, even if living in the same or similar environments. She has also authored the books Go the Distance as a resource for endurance horse owners, Conformation and Performance, and First Aid for Horse and Rider in addition to many veterinary articles for both horse owner and professional audiences. Ensure that your horse receives his core vaccines annually, along with any other vaccines against diseases for which there is a high risk in your area, and make sure he gets his boosters. JUNE/JULY/AUG: In the summer months you’ll want to make sure your horse is protected against all the necessary insect-related diseases for which there are vaccinations. Mary Scollay, DVM, previous chair of the Infectious Disease Committee of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), urges, “I would like to reinforce that the development of an effective vaccination program requires a partnership between the veterinarian and the horse owner. FEI, British Eventing, British Showjumping, British Dressage, British Riding Clubs, etc.). Other vaccinations are administered one at a time. The vaccination program appropriate for an individual horse or herd needs to take into account things such as age, sex, geographic location, use of the horse, pregnancy status and risk for developing the disease. Their input will be valuable in developing your vaccination and deworming protocols. The reader is … “It is reasonable to assume that many of the horses that experience these benefits were initially infected as foals,” she notes. “This is an important ‘herd health’ concept–that by minimizing clinical disease and viral shedding in horses that respond well to vaccination, you are also providing increased protection to horses in the same population that did not, for whatever reason, develop a good immune response to a vaccination.”.
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