In order to yield successful results, coastal wetland restoration strategies need to be adapted to the rapidly-changing coastal landscape. Biswas et al., (2009) identify 5 major causes: Figure 1. How MAP can help your organization implement CBEMR techniques, © 2020 Mangrove Action Project. Good hydrology is vital for a healthy functioning mangrove and the provision of the full suite of ecosystem services. CRG’s biologists have been involved in habitat restoration in the Florida Keys since 1980, carrying out … 1.1 Definition of Mangrove (Tri et al., 1998). These are human-induced degradation and natural disturbance related. In the 1980s, CEC conducted one of the first successful mangrove restoration projects in Florida. Ignoring the changes of topography and undulations of the site because of rigid line planting risks planting in channels or depressions, which are or will become the vital hydrological channels of a natural mangrove. Technically, rehabilitation or restoration of mangroves can be surprisingly easy: [ T] he single most important factor in designing a successful mangrove restoration project is determining the normal hydrology (depth, duration and frequency, and of tidal flooding) of existing natural mangrove plant communities ([i.e.,] a reference site) in the area in which you wish to do restoration (Lewis, 2005, p. 409). Mangrove restoration projects for improving coastal resilience are underway in many places , particularly in countries like the Philippines , Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand, which are heavily affected by flooding … Wetlands International, IUCN Netherlands and Oxfam Novib state that sustainable aquaculture production can help in restoring and conservation mangrove ecosystems. On-going researchAs stated before, much is learned by doing. The project aimed to use the novel PVC encased method to plant the young mangrove propagules- a method that was new to me. Mangrove … Kondikara et al. The protective function of mangrove forest can be split up in wave attenuation, windbreak and stabilization of the shoreline by retaining sediment (, The tidal movement of water is not disturbed by breakwaters; it is actually the roots of the mangroves that reduce the velocity of the water and capture sediment. The success of restoration through replanting seems to depend largely on availability of suitable sites and species and the involvement of the local community (Walters et al., 2008). The advantage of this approach is that it is supported by the local population. The study, Have mangrove restoration projects … about 200–220ha showed successful mangrove restoration. Physical A lot of expertise on mangrove restoration has been gained during the past decades. These benefits can be in the direct use of harvesting the mangrove ecosystem natural resources: Indirect use is more difficult to express in a monetary value, these are: The last benefit category is non-use or preservation value. Utilize actual planting of propagules or seedlings only when step 1-5 does not work out and natural recruitment will not provide the quantity of successfully established seedlings, rate of stabilization or rate of growth as required for project success. mangrove restoration projects using either approach. Labour costs of the restoration and monitoring activities. Mangroves flourish by a depositional regime of fine sediments. Mangrove Restoration Project one of EU’s success stories Aug 02, 2012 News 0 Comments Identified as one of EU’s success stories in the Caribbean, Guyana’s Mangrove Restoration Project (GMRP) will be highlighted at the upcoming Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) conference in Brussels this September. Onze website maakt gebruik van cookies om het gebruik en functionaliteit te waarborgen. Hydrologic restoration (with and without planting). In the Building with Nature research program guidelines are created for governing eco-engineering projects. Now conservationists hope that a process called ecological mangrove restoration (EMR), which is proving far more successful at restoring these forests than previous well-intended but often ill-conceived efforts, will help turn the tide once and for all in the battle to save the mangrove. We elaborate on these three below. MAP promotes and teaches its best practice ‘Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration’ (CBEMR) technique. Therefore, I have developed a rapid assessment monitoring protocol to be incorporated as part of mangrove restoration projects in Southeast Asia in order to evaluate the success of each project and approach and adaptively manage these over time. This project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system estimated planting capital and recurrent costs at approximately US$41 per hectare of mangrove planted, at 2009 price levels. The elaborate giraffe gymnastics occurred in July 2017 when Dr. Freid joined us to conduct the initial botanical assessments of the two terrestrial sites. These are the intangible values of the mangrove ecosystem, which are valued by a group within society (intrinsic): These different kinds of values create a certain “willingness to pay” for the above mentioned costs. Transportation distance between seedling source and planting site, Seedling mortality rate between collection and planting, Cost of raising specific species in nurseries before transplantation because they cannot be directly planted on mud flats due to strong wind and wave forces, Scale of post-implementation monitoring operations, Clearly, estimating the costs of mangrove restoration is complex and depends on a large number of factors. The work and social agreements need monitoring beyond 3-5 years to ensure the interventions worked and social agreements are being adhered to. “There was a major restoration project in Saint Lucia, and their shade house is 12 by 14,” she said. Restoration of ecosystems will seldom reach this initial stage, but it will more often mean returning the ecosystem to a state of effectiveness (. Mangroves are capable of protecting the coastline against erosion caused by wind, waves, and currents, and they can reduce the impact of storms and hurricanes. Since environmental impactsare an ongoing threat, to successfully restore an ecosystem implies not merely to recreate its former condition, but to strengthen … These ponds are exhausted within a few years and after that abandoned as they are no longer useable. The recovery and protection of mangroves can be increased by these plans, in which not only the ecological issues are taken into account, but also the economic and social issues (Biswas et al, 2009). This takes a lot of preparation, work and with that money, making this restoration strategy not that feasible. Mangrove restoration is an activity that fits well in the working with nature concept because mangrove forests serve as natural coastal defence. Commercial exploitation of the different function of mangroves can play a role in the restoration activities. Business models around these value drivers that take into account ecological, social and economic factors can increase the success rate of large scale mangrove restoration activities (CANVAS workshop, 2013). Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR) is a holistic, multi-stage approach, that includes local stakeholders and other groups from the outset. Founded in 2004 it provides scientific and technical expertise in the ecology, restoration and management of mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrasses. sustainable approach to mangrove forest restoration. Click the link adjacent to get in touch with our team: The Mangrove Action Project (MAP) has adopted ‘Ecological Mangrove Restoration’ (EMR) as developed by Robin Lewis of Florida. There are a lot of benefits related to mangrove restoration (as stated before), which could, in theory, be commercially exploited. This can be done for the same costs as planting alone. Using this approach, communities implement mangrove restoration on a local scale with improved understanding of the factors influencing mangrove restoration, so failures can be minimized, costs are low, and implementation is sustainable. These activities are initiated from bottom up. These relate to the involvement of local communities, the use of pilots, and adaptive management structure and learning-by-doing approaches. Red = Training;  Green = Training & Restoration. In addition, a crucial condition for successful restoration of mangrove forests is the support and involvement of the local community. Especially in delta and coastal areas where a large natural belt of mangrove exists, a significant protection against storms is possible. Morrison (1990) defines restoration as follows: ”restoration is the re-introduction and re-establishment of community-like groupings of native species to sites which can reasonably be expected to sustain them, with the resultant vegetation demonstrating aesthetic and dynamic characteristics of the natural communities on which they are based”. Mangroves include about 16 families and 40 to 50 species, but depending on the classification 100 species can be counted (, Mangrove restoration is an activity that fits well in the working with nature concept because mangrove forests serve as natural coastal defence. Adaptive pathways include the use of multiple scenarios on future socio-economic and physical developments (e.g. Implementation can therefore take many forms, from digging to improve site hydrology, to agreements to divert more fresh water into a site, or community mangrove management rules about harvesting of mangroves. Pilot projects are running in for example Indonesia will provide further insights. Natural regeneration has the advantage of not only producing a more biodiverse mangrove, which increases its resilience to climate change, but also potentially more economical as it avoids the costs of nurseries and planting out. Different value drivers can be translated from the above mentioned values, for example: sustainable shrimp farming, commercial charcoal production, carbon capture for compensation, tourism opportunities. The results of each R/R project, whether successful or not, should be published, as they are critical sources of data and information for further development of mangrove R/R practices and methods within the community of restoration ecology science. The use of natural dynamics leads to solutions which are more adaptable in anticipating to (uncertain) changing, natural or socio-economic conditions. Understand the autecology (individual species ecology) of the mangrove species at the site; For example, in Bangladesh 120,000 ha of mangroves have been planted since 1968 (, Many mangrove forests were lost during the last decades of the 20th century. While governments acknowledge the importance of mangroves, the success of restoration efforts has been limited. Lewis, R. (2001), studied mangrove restoration activities and divided these into three categories: For successful mangrove restoration the following six steps are identified. For example, in Bangladesh 120,000 ha of mangroves have been planted since 1968 (Saenger & Siddiqi, 1993). Mr. Lewis and vice president Curtis Kruer were associated with the world’s largest and most successful seagrass and mangrove forest restoration project. A study by these authors calculated the costs and benefits of a mangrove restoration project in Vietnam. In summary, five critical steps are necessary to achieve successful mangrove restoration: 1. Pilot projects are running in for example Indonesia will provide further insights. They work together with local partners in key mangrove countries, like Indonesia and Thailand, to promote this sustainable use. This step includes resolving land ownership/use issues necessary for ensuring long-term access to and conservation of the site. Next to the physical conditions, the governance setting around the restoration activities is very important. So very often there is a need for education and training of local people and parties. The process will also hopefully demonstrate that local communities must preserve the mangroves they have, protect them, and manage them sustainably in order to secure a sustainable future for themselves. Meer informatie hierover vindt u op onze, Mangrove forests are estuarine wetlands, the area where the river meets the sea. MAP also facilitates a CBEMR e-group with over 280 members worldwide sharing information and experience on more effective ways to rehabilitate mangroves. The principal objectives of this project are carbon emission reduction, climate adaptation, and biodiversity conservation. Mangrove restoration is the regeneration of mangrove forest ecosystems in areas where they have previously existed. MAP has actively rehabilitated mangroves in Thailand and Indonesia, as part of post-tsunami recovery, while being involved in consulting on shoreline and mangrove restoration projects elsewhere. Robin successfully used the method to restore mangroves for over 30 years, and there have been a number of scientific papers written to support the technique which uses natural mangrove as a model or reference site. Working-with-nature is an approach in which optimal use is made of natural dynamics, Restoration is defined as ‘an act of putting or bringing back into a former, normal, or unimpaired state or condition’. Monitoring of completed schemes will enhance the understanding of the mangrove restoration (Climate tech wiki, 2013). Since 2002 CEC has been part of a team of coastal scientists and engineers working on the … There also needs to be an investigation of the social factors that might inhibit mangrove regeneration including land tenure, site usage, site history, what restoration attempts have been tried already, and other relevant socio-economic factors such as livelihoods that impact on mangroves. MAP suggests that as nature does not grow in straight lines, there is no need to plant mangroves like this – planting in lines and even spacing is a terrestrial production forestry approach. Through this local sedimentation capitation, coastal erosion is diminished and with that stabilization of the shorelines takes place, Large scale restoration activities are happening less. Using this approach, communities implement mangrove restoration on a local scale with improved understanding of the factors influencing mangrove restoration, so failures can be minimized, costs are low, and implementation is sustainable. There are different reasons for the reduction of mangroves. Roy R. “Robin” Lewis III, has over 40 years of experience in seagrass meadow and mangrove forest mapping, management and restoration in the USA and twenty-two foreign countries. MAP’s CBEMR process encourages mangrove workers to make a detailed examination of local hydrology both on the restoration site and adjoining, to ensure that tidal flushing is working well. The new Guidelines on Mangrove Ecosystem Restoration for the Western Indian Ocean Region analyze risks and challenges to restoration projects and point to potential solutions. Storm protection can be realized through windbreak whereby mangrove trees are able to reduce wind speeds up to a distance about 20-30 times their height. Mangrove teams need to understand the biophysical parameters of the site, the ecology of the species present or expected, local hydrology and topography, and other features that might affect mangrove establishment. There is a massive mangrove die-back due to changes in the hydrological system, which is sometimes caused by natural events, but is more often the result of human interference with the natural hydrology (Erftemijer and Teunissen, 2009). There are different reasons for the reduction of mangroves. Wetlands International, IUCN Netherlands, Oxfam Novib – Sustianable Shrimp Production South East Asia. Mangroves are forests in intertidal areas, with medium height trees and shrubs. Nine out of 23 project sites (i.e. (. Proper planning increases the success rate in this case. Understanding which species are suitable for an individual site takes experience, and knowledge of mangrove ecology, biology and the various gradients on a site such as inundation, salinity and wave energy. Mangrove forests are situated in the intertidal area between land and sea. Our goal was to inform best-practices for mangrove ( Avicennia germinans) restoration, and to provide recommendations as to if and when coastal wetland restoration efforts should include mangrove plantings. The costs of individual projects should be calculated on a case-by-case basis, This project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system estimated planting capital and recurrent costs at approximately US$41 per hectare of mangrove planted, at 2009 price levels. The objective of this project is to determine if, where, and how mangrove restoration should be implemented in Galveston Bay. Scientific data shows that when this method is used, the ecological functions of the mangrove forest are quickly restored. There are a lot of benefits related to mangrove restoration (as stated before), which could, in theory, be commercially exploited. The recovery and protection of mangroves can be increased by these plans, in which not only the ecological issues are taken into account, but also the economic and social issues (, The human factor in mangrove restoration should not be underestimated (. World mangrove distribution in 2000 (Wikipedia, 2013), Key words: Mangroves, working with natureDelta Facts: Sand Nourishment, Managed Realignment. Mangrove R/R projects implemented in the Asia and Australasia sectors of the IWP (a, b). Benefits of mangrove restorationMangroves are very productive eco-systems; they provide benefits in different ways for many parties. 2. Situated between land and sea, the mangrove forest contains many different species which, depending on their location, are more or less salt tolerant. Still, I was disheartened to hear that while the community may plant 1,000 mangroves in a month, development projects that transforms coastal wetlands could kill the same amount in just a day. A constraint to successful implementation of mangrove restoration is an incomplete understanding of the ability of a clear-cut, degraded wetland to recover, and of the success rates of mangrove restoration. Understanding which species are suitable for an individual site takes experience, and knowledge of mangrove ecology, biology and the various gradients on a site such as inundation, salinity and wave energy. Mangrove Action Project has implemented both CBEMR projects and trainings in various countries around the world, demonstrating an effective and sustainable approach to mangrove forest restoration. Until researchers, NGOs, and government agencies can work together, mangrove restoration has an uncertain future in Sri Lanka. Other objectives could be landscape enhancement, sustainable productions of natural resources and protection of coastal areas (Morrisson, 1990). The India Sundarbans Mangrove Restoration project seeks to plant 6000 ha of mangroves over three years that will store a projected 700,000 t of carbon over 20 years in their biomass and soil. The Mangrove Action Project (MAP) has adopted ‘Ecological Mangrove Restoration’ (EMR) as developed by Robin Lewis of Florida. If interventions failed to work the first time, this iterative process encourages further study and work to ensure successful outcomes. 2017 conducted an assessment of the success of 23 mangrove restoration projects implemented following the 2004 tsunami. An illustrative example is the story of a village in India’s province Tamil Nadu, In an attempt to get in the Guinness World Records book the inhabitants planted 80.244 saplings of mangroves. On-going research and monitoring of current mangrove restoration projects can provide insight into the preconditions for successful mangrove restoration. Through this local sedimentation capitation, coastal erosion is diminished and with that stabilization of the shorelines takes place (Marchand, 2008). Due to the loss of live mangrove roots the soil may become unable to host plants at all. An adaptive governance approach includes principles of continuous and collective learning to include new insights and knowledge, a participatory monitoring program, wide participation of stakeholders, and a continues process of reflexive decision-making. Hence, where necessary, hydrology should be improved by digging and then let nature do the rest. Estimate the modifications of the mangrove environment that occurred and that currently prevent natural secondary succession. There are various strategies for mangrove restoration. This will preserve habitats and ecosystems into the future. Biswas et al., (2009) for example state that poor socio-economic conditions and intensive human intervention are enormous challenges for mangrove restoration in Southeast Asia. A lot of expertise on mangrove restoration has been gained during the past decades. As stated before, much is learned by doing. Planting alone; this restoration usually fails because of lack of attention for the physiological tolerances of mangroves to tidal inundation. Time series photographs of a hydrologic mangrove restoration project at West Lake Park, Hollywood, FL, USA (A) Time Zero, July 1989, (B) Time Zero + 28 months, November 1991 and … Design the restoration program at suitable sites (selected in step 4) to restore the proper hydrology and utilize natural mangrove recruitment for natural development. Mangrove restoration is about recovering the former situation; it is the regeneration of mangrove ecosystems in areas where they were previously situated. Restoration goals and objectives can vary, the primary goal often being re-establishment of habitat and functions that have been or would otherwise be lost. This research, combined with a study of a nearby natural healthy mangrove, will reveal what has changed on site and what needs to be done in order to restore normal mangrove conditions. Planting is only necessary if natural recolonization after the hydrologic restoration fails. The needs of mangroves and other wetland plants and animals are not yet fully understood. Mangroves include about 16 families and 40 to 50 species, but depending on the classification 100 species can be counted (Ellison, 2000; Christensen, 1983). Governance Additional research is needed to build successful business models around mangrove restoration. The level of survival of the restoration project sites ranged from 0 to 78% and only three sites, that is, This estimate includes planting costs and the cost of thinning (removal of certain plants to improve the growth rate and health of the remaining plants) from year six onwards. The needs of mangroves and other wetland plants and animals are not yet fully understood. Costs of mangrove restoration          The costs of mangrove restoration differ per type of mangrove restoration activity (as proposed by R. Lewis (2001)); The costs of mangrove restoration further depend on: Clearly, estimating the costs of mangrove restoration is complex and depends on a large number of factors. Mangrove restoration projects were launched in Sri Lanka covering over 2,000 hectares. With regard to the presence of suitable sites, it should be noted that clear-cutting of mangrove forests has often led to degradation and erosion of the soil. This is contrary to more conventional approaches where after implementation projects are finished. climate change or land-use) and possible actions. Mangroves flourish by a depositional regime of fine sediments. When the tsunami struck at the 26 of December 2002, much of the land around the village was flooded, but this village suffered only minimal damage. World mangrove distribution in 2000 (Wikipedia, 2013), Key words: Mangroves, working with nature. Furthermore, hand planting tends to ignore variations in soil elevation as planters attempt to keep propagules in straight lines. MAP has completed EMR training workshops in Cambodia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Myanmar, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Thailand, and plans to additional workshops where there is interest. These theoretical business models should be tested and further expanded. Many effective mangrove restoration projects, like the mentioned one in South India, have been conducted through an approach of ‘learning by doing’. [G M E Perillo;] -- Coastal Wetlands, Second Edition: An Integrated and Ecosystem Approach provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide. Natural regeneration is preferred, as the resulted forest is supposed to be more like the original forest (, Excavation or fill; In order for mangroves to grow, the restoration site needs to have a certain slope and a very exact tidal elevation to insure that the hydrology for the mangroves is correct. Ecological Engineering for Successful Management and Restoration of Mangrove Forests. Many effective mangrove restoration projects, like the mentioned one in South India, have been conducted through an approach of ‘learning by doing’. Deltares is concerned with several mangrove restoration projects. Our experts offer extended training workshops that integrate and address the needs of multiple stakeholders into the process, creating a network that brings a lasting restorative effort, A key component of the CBEMR process is understanding and addressing the underlying ecological necessities of each individual area – fixing the underlying reasons for why mangroves haven’t naturally regenerated in the first place, Working with local communities – including in networking, educational, and livelihood training capacities – is integral to the success of projects, ensuring that those living within the area will be involved in the restoration efforts, countries MAP has given CBEMR trainings to worldwide, CBEMR demonstration sites across Thailand converting abandoned shrimp ponds back to healthy mangroves, villages involved in mangrove restoration knowledge exchange projects, Click the link below to download a PDF to learn a bit more about the CBEMR process, Locations of CBEMR trainings & restorations around the globe. Robin successfully used the method to restore mangroves for over 30 years, and there have been a number of scientific papers written to support the technique which uses natural mangrove as a model or reference site . Restoration of ecosystems will seldom reach this initial stage, but it will more often mean returning the ecosystem to a state of effectiveness (Bosire et al, 2001). The human factor in mangrove restoration should not be underestimated (Bosire et al., 2008). 36/67 planting efforts) showed no surviving plants. MAP suggests that as nature does not grow in straight lines, there is no need to plant mangroves like this – planting in lines and even spacing is a terrestrial production forestry approach. They are located mostly along tropical coastlines and some subtropical coastlines (see figure 1). Mangrove forests are estuarine wetlands, the area where the river meets the sea. The success of restoration through replanting seems to depend largely on availability of suitable sites and species and the involvement of the local community (Walters et al., 2008). Physical A constraint to successful implementation of mangrove restoration is an incomplete understanding of the ability of a clear-cut, degraded wetland to recover, and of the success rates of mangrove restoration. Excavation or fill; this is a very expensive category, due to the high cost related to earthmoving on a large scale. The protective function of mangrove forest can be split up in wave attenuation, windbreak and stabilization of the shoreline by retaining sediment (Marchand, 2008). Ignoring the changes of topography and undulations of the site because of rigid line planting risks planting in channels or depressions, which are or will become the vital hydrological channels of a natural mangrove. This is an incentive for them to invest in mangrove restoration and conservation. This makes it very difficult to restore the mangrove forests. Work together with communities, organizations and local government in order to: Understand the ecology of the naturally occurring mangrove species at the site such as the patterns of reproduction, distribution, and successful seeding establishment. Mangrove restoration is based on a strategy of ‘working with nature’. It is also key to natural regeneration as the flushing brings in all the available seeds and propagules and puts them in the appropriate place, unlike single-species planting which only produces mono-culture plantations. Human-induced degradation is the active conversion of mangroves by humans, while natural disturbance is degradation of mangroves as a result of a change in their environment/ecology (which can have a human cause as well) (. Mangrove forests can realize significant wave attenuation. Therefore working with nature solutions require adaptive pathways for decision-making and an adaptive governance approach to facilitate implementation and maintenance of the working-with-nature solutions. A short look at Mangroves against the storm. Saint Lucia’s Ma Kôté mangrove forest is the largest in the Eastern Caribbean, but it recently has sustained severe damaged due to poor water circulation. The tidal movement of water is not disturbed by breakwaters; it is actually the roots of the mangroves that reduce the velocity of the water and capture sediment. For successful mangrove restoration the following six steps are identified. Work together with communities, organizations and local government in order to: The success of restoration through replanting largely depends on the availability of suitable sites and species (Walters et al., 2008).
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