The names of the four sub-units within the Kamikaze Special Attack Force were Unit Shikishima, Unit Yamato, Unit Asahi and Unit Yamazakura. 1 November 1944. USS Morrison (DD-560) sunk after being hit by four Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945. A group of pilots from the army's 31st Fighter Squadron on Negros Island decided to launch a suicide attack the following morning. LCT(5)-71 sunk, 11 September 1943. USS YMS-24 sunk by a mine off St. Tropez, France, 15 August 1944.  Kamikaze attacks were more accurate than conventional attacks, and often caused more damage. Such situations occurred in both the Axis and Allied air forces.  Eleven of the 1,036 IJA kamikaze pilots who died in sorties from Chiran and other Japanese air bases during the Battle of Okinawa were Koreans. Colloquium on Contemporary History 1989-1998, DANFS - Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Needs and Opportunities in the Modern History of the U.S. Navy, Permitting Policy and Resource Management, "Ex Scientia Tridens": The U.S. The very first ship sunk by a Kamikaze was the USS Sonoma, an ocean tugboat. USS Scamp (SS-277) probably sunk by Japanese patrol vessel off Tokyo Bay, Japan, USS LCI(L)-1 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 17 August 1943. USS Pillsbury (DD-227) sunk by Japanese warships east of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, 1-4 March 1942. Not a single armored surface combatant (cruiser or battleship) was seriously endangered by a kamikaze strike. LCT(6)-582 sunk in the Azores Islands, 22 January 1944. Foreword. While many stories were falsified, some were true, such as that of Kiyu Ishikawa, who saved a Japanese ship when he crashed his plane into a torpedo that an American submarine had launched.  The attack killed 30 personnel, including the cruiser's captain, Emile Dechaineux, and wounded 64, including the Australian force commander, Commodore John Collins. On 9 May, Formidable was again damaged by a kamikaze, as were the carrier HMS Victorious and the battleship HMS Howe. USS Shark (SS-314) sunk by Japanese destroyer Harukaze in Luzon Strait, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944. Motor Mine sweepers (YMS) USS LST-563 grounded off Clipperton Island, southwest Pacific, 22 December 1944, and abandoned, 9 February 1945. USS YMS-133 foundered off Coos Bay, Oregon, 21 February 1943. PT-117 destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombing, Rendova Harbor, Solomon Islands, Targeting the aircraft proved to be much less successful and practical than attacks against warships, as the bombers made for much faster, more maneuverable and smaller targets. As a result, the special attack units are sometimes known in Japan as kamikaze tokubetsu kōgeki tai. USS YMS-14 sunk in collision in Boston harbor, Massachusetts, 11 January 1945. Divine Wind. USS LCS(L)(3)-15 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 22 April 1945. Lo would be the first U.S. ship to be sunk by a kamikaze attack. 97 examples: A mercenary is, almost by definition, not kamikaze material. USS YMS-421 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 September 1945. USS PE-56 sunk by German submarine U-853 off Portland, Maine, 23 April 1945. USS LSM-149 grounded off the Philippine Islands, 5 December 1944. It's all a lie that they left filled with braveness and joy, crying, "Long live the emperor!" USS YMS-103 sunk by a mine off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 8 April 1945. The Average Kamikaze Pilot Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa, who flew his aircraft into the USS Bunker Hill USS LCI(L)-91 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. USS LCI(L)-85 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. USS Hull (DD-350) foundered during a typhoon in the Philippine Sea, 18 December 1944. USS LST-396 sunk by accidental fire and explosion off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, USS Swerve (AM-121) sunk by a mine off Anzio, Italy, 9 July 1944. PT-173 lost in transit, tanker torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-17, 100 miles south of Noumea, New Caledonia, 24 May 1943. 25 October 1944. USS Sentinel (AM-113) sunk by German aircraft off Licata, Sicily, 12 July 1943. Early successes – such as the sinking of USS St. YP-336 destroyed by grounding in the Delaware River, 23 February 1943. U.S. Coast Guard Ships Arima personally led an attack by about 100 Yokosuka D4Y Suisei ("Judy") dive bombers against a large Essex-class aircraft carrier, USS Franklin, near Leyte Gulf, on or about 15 October 1944. Only Kamikaze and Harukaze survived the war, but Harukaze was in such poor condition when surrendered at … USS SC-709 grounded off Cape Breton, France, 21 January 1943. A final element included intensive fighter sweeps over Japanese airfields, and bombing of Japanese runways, using delayed-action bombs to make repairs more difficult.. LCT(5)-340 sunk, 9 February 1944 and stricken from the Navy List, 6 March 1944. USS S-28 (SS-133) failed to surface during training exercises with the USCGC Reliance (WPC-150) off Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 4 July 1944. USS Edsall (DD-219) sunk by Japanese warships south of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 1 March 1942. They said that the commander of a kamikaze attack should engage in the task first. USS Johnston (DD-557) sunk by Japanese warships off Samar, Philippine Islands, USS LST-472 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 December 1944. USS Block Island (CVE-21) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-549 northwest of the Canary Islands, 29 May 1944. USS LST-69 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.  Japanese planners had assumed a quick war and lacked comprehensive programmes to replace the losses of ships, pilots and sailors; and Midway; the Solomon Islands campaign (1942–1945) and the New Guinea campaign (1942–1945), notably the Battles of Eastern Solomons (August 1942); and Santa Cruz (October 1942), decimated the IJNAS veteran aircrews, and replacing their combat experience proved impossible..  The speedy Ohkas presented a very difficult problem for anti-aircraft fire, since their velocity made fire control extremely difficult. USS SC-1067 foundered off Attu, Aleutian Islands, 19 November 1943. Gherardi (DMS-30) was the only ship in a squadron of 11 high-speed minesweepers (also called destroyer minesweepers) that escaped damage by kamikaze attacks during the Battle of Okinawa. 7 December 1941, and stricken from the Navy List, 1 December 1942. U.S. Ensign Mitsuo Ohta had suggested that piloted glider bombs, carried within range of targets by a mother plane, should be developed. The kamikaze were escorted by other pilots whose function was to protect them en route to their destination and report on the results. Terrible Naval Losses Nine more waves of kamikaze attacks hit the fleet off of Okinawa before the battle came to an end. The total number of active combatant ships engaged in combat at Okinawa was MUCH larger than Normandy. LCT(6)-572 sunk off northern France, June 1944. The only surface losses were destroyers and smaller ships that lacked the capability to sustain heavy damage. Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945. When you eliminate all thoughts about life and death, you will be able to totally disregard your earthly life. USS Drexler (DD-741) sunk after being hit by two Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 28 May 1945. PT-135 grounded in enemy waters and destroyed to prevent capture, near Crater Point, New Britain, 12 April 1944. USS PGM-7 sunk in collision in the Bismarck Sea, 18 July 1944. USS LCI(G)-468 sunk, 17 June 1944. USS Hutchins (DD-476) seriously damaged by a Japanese suicide boat, 27 April 1945, in Buckner Bay, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, and not repaired after the end of the war. The vessel was named for Seaman Bartlett Laffey, who was awarded a Medal of Honor for bravery during the War Between the States. LCT(6)-984 sunk, 15 May 1944, and stricken from the Navy List, 9 June 1944. 18 August 1943. LCT(5)-215 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 1943. Before taking off, he had told his men that if his plane were to become badly damaged he would crash it into a "worthy enemy target". The attacks expended 1,465 planes.  In addition to kamikazes, the Japanese military also used or made plans for non-aerial Japanese Special Attack Units, including those involving submarines, human torpedoes, speedboats and divers. Mine sweeper, Coastal (AMc) USS Tullibee (SS-284) sunk by own torpedo north of Palau, Caroline Islands, 26 March 1944. USS Tide (AM-125) sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 7 June 1944. PT-63 destroyed by accidental fire while refueling in port, Hamburg Bay, Emirau Island, 18 June 1944. USS PC-1129 sunk by Japanese Suicide boat off Nasugbu, Luzon, Philippine Islands, The fires were gradually brought under control, and the crater in the deck was repaired with concrete and steel plate. We read and read, trying to understand why we had to die in our early twenties. The targets were U.S. escort carriers; one, the St. PT-113 destroyed as a result of grounding, not in enemy waters, Veale Reef, near Tufi, New Guinea, 8 August 1943. LCT(6)-1050 sunk off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 27 July 1945. For example, Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryū ("Peggy") medium bombers, based on Formosa, undertook kamikaze attacks on Allied forces off Okinawa, while a pair of Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu ("Nick") heavy fighters caused enough damage for USS Dickerson (DD-157) to be scuttled. USS Scorpion (SS-278) missing in the western Pacific, 6 March 1944. ", As time wore on, modern critics questioned the nationalist portrayal of kamikaze pilots as noble soldiers willing to sacrifice their lives for the country. About 14% of kamikaze attacks managed to hit a ship. USS Ingraham (DD-444) sunk after a collision in fog with the USS Chemung (AO-30) in the North Atlantic, 22 August 1942. Naval War College Analysis, p.1; Parshall and Tully. Lo, was struck by a …  At Okinawa, kamikaze attacks focused at first on Allied destroyers on picket duty, and then on the carriers in the middle of the fleet. USS Albacore (SS-218) sunk after striking a mine north of Hokkaido, Japan, 7 November 1944. She was a prototype for the Mitsubishi Ki-15 ("Babs"). YP-387 sunk by collision, 20 May 1942. The U.S. Fast Carrier Task Force alone could bring over 1,000 fighter aircraft into play. 278,265 Pages. 1 August 1943. The attacks began in October 1944, at a time when the war was looking increasingly bleak for the Japanese. USS Bullhead (SS-332) sunk by Japanese aircraft north of Bali, Lesser Sunda Islands, 6 August 1945. Provide me with 300 planes and I will turn the tide of war. Fisheries II (converted yacht) destroyed to prevent capture at Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 5 May 1942. By 17:00, Corsairs were able to land. USS LCI(L)-32 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 26 January 1944. Numbers quoted vary, but at least 47 Allied vessels, from PT boats to escort carriers, were … USS Dorado (SS-248) probably sunk in error by US aircraft in the Caribbean Sea, USS Darter (SS-227) stranded on Bombay Shoal, off Palawan, Philippine Islands, and destroyed to prevent capture, 24 October 1944. USS Cisco (SS-290) sunk by Japanese warships and aircraft in the Sulu Sea, 28 September 1943.  First Lieutenant Fusata Iida's plane had taken a hit and had started leaking fuel when he apparently used it to make a suicide attack on Naval Air Station Kaneohe. It was an effort ultimately doomed to fail, but one that exacted a horrible price in lives and ships sunk or heavily damaged. The Japanese crashed over 1,900 planes in choreographed kamikaze dives around Okinawa — sinking a total 126 ships and damaging 64 others. USS Grunion (SS-216) missing off Kiska, Aleutian Islands, at the end of July 1942. PT-337 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries, Hansa Bay, New Guinea, 7 March 1944. PT-247 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries, off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 5 May 1944. USS Escolar (SS-294) probably sunk after striking a mine in the Yellow Sea, 17 October 1944. USS Twiggs (DD-591) sunk by a Kamikaze aircraft after being torpedoed off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 16 June 1945. , On 17 October 1944, Allied forces assaulted Suluan Island, beginning the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Kamikaze strike resulted in massive fires that led to an explosion in the ship’s bomb magazine. LCT(6)-1151 sunk, 26 January 1945. USS Asheville (PG-21) sunk by Japanese warships south of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 3 March 1942. Aircraft Carrier, Small (CVL) Firsthand interviews with surviving kamikaze and escort pilots has revealed that they were motivated by a desire to protect their families from perceived atrocities and possible extinction at the hands of the Allies. USS Finch (AM-9) sunk by Japanese aircraft off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 11 April 1942. USS LST-348 sunk by German submarine U-410 off Anzio, Italy, 20 February 1944. For horizontal attacks, the pilot was to "aim at the middle of the vessel, slightly higher than the waterline" or to "aim at the entrance to the aircraft hangar, or the bottom of the stack" if the former was too difficult. USS Reuben James (DD-245) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine U-562 south of Iceland, 31 October 1941. USS LCI(L)-219 sunk off northern France, 11 June 1944. PT-112 destroyed by Japanese warships off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 11 January 1943. U.S. personnel gave them the derisive nickname "Baka Bombs" (baka is Japanese for "idiot" or "stupid"). USS LST-523 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 19 June 1944. In 1942, when U.S. Navy vessels were scarce, the temporary absence of key warships from the combat zone would tie up operational initiatives. USS Barton (DD-599) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 13 November 1942. PT-119 destroyed by fire in port, Tufi, New Guinea, 17 March 1943. Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945. USS YMS-481 sunk by shore batteries off Tarakan, Borneo, 2 May 1945. USS LST-531 sunk by German motor torpedo boats in Lyme Bay, England, 28 April 1944. Like all Army and Navy servicemen, the kamikaze would wear their senninbari, a "belt of a thousand stitches" given to them by their mothers. Mine sweeper (AM) YP-577 destroyed by undetermined explosion in the Great Lakes, 23 January 1943. Some kamikazes were able to hit their targets even after their aircraft were crippled. USS R-12 (SS-89) foundered during exercises off Key West, Florida, 12 June 1943. USS LST-808 grounded after being damaged by Japanese aircraft off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 18 May 1945, and destroyed, 11 November 1945. USS YMS-48 sunk by shore batteries in Manila Bay, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 14 February 1945. As the end of the war approached, the Allies did not suffer more serious significant losses, despite having far more ships and facing a greater intensity of kamikaze attacks. USS Sealion (SS-195) sunk by Japanese aircraft at Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands, III) (LCS(L)) Post-war analysis showed that some British carriers such as HMS Formidable suffered structural damage that led to them being scrapped, as being beyond economic repair. Seki became the 24th kamikaze pilot to be chosen. USS Bristol (DD-453) sunk after being torpedoed by the German submarine U-371 off Cape Bougaroun, Algeria, 12 October 1943. USS Palmer (DMS-5) sunk by Japanese aircraft in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 7 January 1945. In the final moments before the crash, the pilot was to yell "hissatsu" (必殺) at the top of his lungs, which translates to "certain kill" or "sink without fail".. USS Bush (DD-529) sunk after being hit by three Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 6 April 1945. Submarine (SS) Only one “fleet” carrier, the Essex-clas USS Lagarto (SS-371) sunk by Japanese minelayer Hatsutaka in the Gulf of Siam, 3 May 1945. USS LCI(G)-474 sunk off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17 February 1945. USS Lansdale (DD-426) sunk after being torpedoed by German aircraft off Cape Bengut, Algeria, 20 April 1944. LCT(5)-147 sunk off northern France, June 1944. LCT(5)-208 sunk off Algeria, 20 June 1943. USS Cythera (PY-26) sunk after being torpedoed by German submarine off North Carolina, 2 May 1942. Arima was killed and part of a plane hit Franklin. USS Meredith (DD-726) sunk by German aircraft after being damaged by a mine in the Bay of the Seine, Normandy, France, 9 June 1944. , The manual was very detailed in how a pilot should attack. USS LST-43 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944. USS Perch (SS-176) scuttled after being damaged by Japanese destroyers Sazanami and Ushio north of Java, Netherlands East Indies, 3 March 1942. U.S. Navy Warships While Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukudome, commander of the second air fleet, was inspecting the 341st Air Group, Captain Okamura took the chance to express his ideas on crash-dive tactics. YP-453 destroyed by grounding in the Bahama Islands, 15 April 1943. The 1st Air Fleet commandant, Vice Admiral Takijirō Ōnishi, decided to form a suicide offensive force, the Special Attack Unit. USS LST-6 sunk by a mine in the Seine River while en route from Rouen, France, to Portland, England, 18 November 1944. USS Corry (DD-463) sunk by a mine off Utah Beach, Normandy, France, 6 June 1944. Most of the ships sunk by kamikaze attacks were smaller: landing ships, cargo ships, destroyers, and destroyer escorts, especially those assigned to “radar picket” duties during the Okinawa campaign and after. As time went on, Americans claimed, Shinto was used increasingly in the promotion of nationalist sentiment. Lo was struck by a kamikaze and sank shortly after the main engagement had ended. USS SC-744 sunk by Kamikaze attack in Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, 27 November 1944. USS Holder (DE-401) scrapped after being torpedoed by German aircraft off Algiers, Algeria, 11 April 1944. At the time of surrender, the Japanese had more than 9,000 planes in the home islands available for Kamikaze attack, and more than 5,000 had already been specially fitted for suicide attack to resist the planned invasion. USS LST-507 sunk by German motor torpedo boats in Lyme Bay, England, 28 April 1944. Later, Tamai asked Lieutenant Yukio Seki to command the special attack force. USS PC-815 sunk by collision with USS Laffey (DD-724) off San Diego, California, USS LST-203 destroyed by grounding near Nanumea, Ellice Islands, 2 October 1943. USS LST-447 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 7 April 1945. USS S-26 (SS-131) sunk after collision with submarine chaser PC-460 in the Gulf of Panama, 24 January 1942. Porcupine IX-126 on fire.jpg 510 × 293; … 12 October 1943. Even encouraging capable pilots to bail out before impact was ineffective because vital personnel were often lost when they mistimed their exits and were killed as a result. In fact, this ship was the second destroyer to bear the Irish sailor's name. USS LSM-135 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 25 May 1945. USS LSM-12 foundered after being damaged by a Japanese suicide boat off Okinawa, Amphibious Ships LCT(5)-242 sunk off Naples, Italy, 2 December 1943. LCT(5)-66 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12 April 1945. PT-300 destroyed by Kamikaze attack, Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 18 December 1944. USS LCI(L)-497 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. Gunboat (PG) PT-77 sunk in error by the USS Conyngham (DD-371) and USS Lough (DE-586) near Talin Point, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 1 February 1945. PT-28 damaged beyond repair in a storm at Dora Harbor, Alaska, 12 January 1943. In 1942, when U.S. Navy vessels were scarce, the temporary absence of key warships from … YP-438 destroyed by grounding at Port Everglades, Florida, 20 March 1943. PT-363 destroyed by Japanese shore batteries in Knoe Bay, Halmahera, Netherlands East Indies, 25 November 1944. LCT(5)-362 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944. , U.S. carriers, with their wooden flight decks, appeared to suffer more damage from kamikaze hits than the armored-decked carriers from the British Pacific Fleet. The British were able to clear the flight deck and resume flight operations in just hours, while their American counterparts took a few days or even months, as observed by a U.S. Navy liaison officer on HMS Indefatigable who commented: "When a kamikaze hits a U.S. carrier it means six months of repair at Pearl Harbor. USS Chicago (CA-29) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese aircraft off Rennel, Solomon Islands, 29 - 30 January 1943. LCT(6)-1075 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1944. ", Commander Asaichi Tamai asked a group of 23 talented student pilots, all of whom he had trained, to volunteer for the special attack force. On 20 March, the submarine USS Devilfish survived a hit from an aircraft just off Japan. USS SC-1024 sunk after collision off North Carolina, 2 March 1943. Also Read: This is actual footage of the Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri Sailors and Marines work together putting out the fires caused by the Kamikaze pilots. Entering a smoke stack was also said to be "effective". USS LST-921 torpedoed by German submarine U-764 off the channel entrance to Bristol, England, 14 August 1944, and struck from the Navy list, 14 October 1944. The invasion never happened, and few were ever used.  First Lieutenant Takeshi Kosai and a sergeant were selected. YP-94 destroyed by grounding, 18 February 1945. Submarine Chaser, (173 foot) (PC) 10 December 1941, and destroyed to prevent capture, 25 December 1941. USS Grayback (SS-208) sunk by Japanese aircraft in the East China Sea, 26 February 1944. LCT(5)-413 sunk off northern France, June 1944. USS LST-750 sunk by Japanese aircraft off Los Negros, Leyte, Philippine Islands, USS Atlanta (CL-51) scuttled off Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, after being damaged by gunfire from Japanese warships during the Battle of Guadalcanal, USS LSMR-195 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 3 May 1945. USS LCI(L)-1065 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944. USS SC-636 sunk off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 9 October 1945. USS Walke (DD-416) sunk by gunfire and torpedoes from Japanese warships off Savo, Solomon Islands, 14 November 1942. , One source claims that the first kamikaze mission occurred on 13 September 1944. The task facing the Japanese air forces seemed impossible. 28 December 1944. During the northern hemisphere winter of 1944–45, the IJAAF formed the 47th Air Regiment, also known as the Shinten Special Unit (Shinten Seiku Tai) at Narimasu Airfield, Nerima, Tokyo, to defend the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Many Army officer kamikaze took their swords along, while the Navy pilots (as a general rule) did not. USS Seawolf (SS-197) sunk in error by destroyer escort USS Richard M. Rowell (DE-403) off Morotai, 3 October 1944. USS YMS-350 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 2 July 1944. Although causing some of the heaviest casualties on U.S. carriers in 1945, the IJN had sacrificed 2,525 kamikaze pilots and the IJAAF 1,387—far more than it had lost in 1942 when it sank or crippled three carriers (albeit without inflicting significant casualties). USS Hornbill (AMc-13) sunk after collision with the lumber schooner Esther Johnson in San Francisco Bay, California, 30 June 1942. LCT(6)-1090 sunk off Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 March 1945. USS LCS(L)(3)-7 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, 13 September 1944. USS LCS(L)(3)-127 sunk off California, 5 March 1945, and stricken from the Navy List, 30 March 1945. USS Luzon (PR-7) scuttled off Corregidor, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 6 May 1942. USS Gudgeon (SS-211) missing off the Marianas Islands, 18 April 1944. , According to some sources, on 14 October 1944, USS Reno was hit by a deliberately crashed Japanese plane. YP-128 destroyed by grounding off Monterey, California, 30 June 1942. USS Wasmuth (DMS-15) sunk by explosion of depth charges during gale off Aleutian Islands, 29 December 1942. USS PGM-17 destroyed by grounding off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945. Heavy Cruiser (CA) All of the pilots raised both of their hands, volunteering to join the operation. YP-389 sunk by a submarine off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 19 June 1942. USS LSMR-194 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945. The Japanese high command and propagandists seized on Arima's example. USS Shelton (DE-407) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese submarine RO-41 off Morotai Island, 3 October 1944. Pilots would attempt to crash their aircraft into enemy ships in what was called a "body attack" (tai-atari) in planes loaded with bombs, torpedoes or other explosives. USS Porter (DD-356) sunk after being torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-21 near Santa Cruz Island, east of the Solomon Islands, 26 October 1942. USS Warrington (DD-383) foundered in a hurricane north of the Bahamas Islands, , Before the formation of kamikaze units, pilots had made deliberate crashes as a last resort when their planes had suffered severe damage and they did not want to risk being captured, or wanted to do as much damage to the enemy as possible, since they were crashing anyway. USS Colhoun (DD-801) sunk after being hit by four Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 6 April 1945. USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413) sunk by Japanese warships during the Battle of Leyte Gulf off Samar, Philippine Islands, 25 October 1944. USS Crow (AMc-20) sunk by erratic running aircraft torpedo in Puget Sound, Washington, 23 August 1943.